Laboratory pH measurements require the highest level of accuracy and precision. pH measurements may be used to simply characterize a lab sample or used more extensively to validate a product or process. In other lab experiments, pH may be an indicator of an end-point, or used to ensure a lab sample is being preserved or pre-treated properly.
Laboratory applications may require specialized form factors and design features such as miniaturization, flow cell apparatus, and custom reference electrolytes. Refillable and free-flowing junctions are more conducive to overcoming measurement challenges and provide better performance.